(Un) happy first of December

(Un) happy first of December

Exactly 102 years have passed since the birthday of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was founded by Slovenes together with Croats and Serbs. As Belgrade gained political dominance in the new country, there is much debate among historians as to whether December 1 was happy or unhappy for Slovenes.

The emergence of the Yugoslav state after the end of the First World War has a longer beard than one might think. The Yugoslav idea was very much alive for many years before 1918. The climax came in May 1917, when SLS MP Anton Korošec read the May Declaration in the Austrian parliament demanding the unification of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs within Austria-Hungary into an independent state under the Habsburg emperor. The Bishop of Ljubljana, Anton Bonaventura Jeglič, therefore intervened in Slovene politics, which was not united on this request, with a statement in support of the declaration, which was signed by more than 100.000 people.

State of SHS

In the last months of the war, the state of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs was born, which included today's Slovenia without Prekmurje, Croatia without Medžimurje and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In August 1918, the National Council for the Slovene Lands and Istria was established in Ljubljana, which included all political parties. "The task of the council was also to prepare for the situation when the fate of the Slovenes and their territory would be decided after the war, especially because of the possibility of enforcing the provisions of the secret London agreement of April 1915. It was precisely because of this circumstance that the National the world is especially needed, "says the well-known Nova Gorica historian Branko Marušič.

11. September

A provincial section of the National Council was established in Trieste on 11 September 1918, and two days later in Gorizia. The Gorizia Council, led by the liberal Karel Podgornik, then issued a "proclamation" on 1 November, in which it took power over the entire Gorizia-Burgenland region. But on November 6, three days after the signing of the armistice, the first Italian soldiers arrived in the city and then the Austro-Hungarian soldiers had to leave the city. With the dissolution of the Provincial Section of the National Council on 14 November, the few days of Slovenian rule in Gorizia ended, states Marušič. Primorska started living under Italian boots.

Formally, the state of SHS was established on October 29, 1918. The capital was in Zagreb, and Slovenia was politically and administratively completely independent for a good month. The National Council in Ljubljana was renamed the government headed by Josip vitez Pogačnik. The National Council in Zagreb was led by Korošec. Although a third of the Slovenian territory of the new state was occupied by Italy, and although it received international recognition only from Hungary, it had the basic attributes of statehood. With General Maister, the state of SHS defended its northern border and experienced final recognition upon its official unification with the Kingdom of Serbia into a new state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Kingdom of SCS

The abbreviation SHS remained the same, only in the name they put Serbs in the first place instead of Slovenes, and at the head of the state the royal dynasty Karadžordžević, which ruled Serbia and its previously annexed Montenegro and Vojvodina. There are several reasons why Slovene and Croatian politicians agreed to the unification that brought Serbian hegemony. First, it was a complex international situation that offered subordination to a strong Serbia as the only option. Another big reason was the Serbian cunning, to which they were not accustomed in Ljubljana and Zagreb. The last nail in the coffin of Slovene autonomy was driven by Slovene liberals, who in the first Yugoslav assembly became a tab on the scales that the Greater Serbia Vidovdan Constitution had been adopted.

Gravediggers of Yugoslavia - Serbs

Although some in the last twenty years have clung to the hypothesis that Slovenia made a mistake in 1918 because it merged with Belgrade instead of remaining within the new federal Austria, most historians describe this idea as a utopia that would border the Slovenian national border. in the north pushed far to the south. An interesting quote from the newspaper Resnica says: “The Germans are watching the coup. They didn’t want to give us years ago of autonomy. They hampered any solution to the Yugoslav question. With this, the Germans became the gravediggers of Austria. German inaccessibility gave birth to our freedom. ”Interestingly, history repeated itself at this point in 1991, as the Greater Serbs became the gravediggers of Yugoslavia.

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Tino Mamic

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